A Short Chronology of Roman History

The Monarchy:

c. 753 B.C. Founding of Rome (April 21, 753)

The Republic:

c. 509 B.C. Republic established (Res Publica)

c. 509-350 B.C. Wars with surrounding tribes (Etruscans, Latins, Gauls, etc.)

c. 490-281 B.C. The Struggle of the Orders (Patricians vs. Plebeians)

c. 450 B.C. Law of the Twelve Tables

c. 390 B.C. Rome captured by the Gauls

c. 350-338 B.C. Rome subdues the Latin League

341-264 Rome’s conquest of Italy

341-280 B.C. The Samnite Wars

264-146 B.C. Rome’s conquest of the Mediterranean world

264-146 B.C. Wars with Carthage:
     1st Punic War (Conquest of Sicily): 264-241 B.C.
     2d Punic War (Hannabalic War): 218-202 B.C.
     3rd Punic War (Carthage destroyed): 149-146 B.C.

200-146 B.C. Wars in the East:
     1st Macedonian War: 215-206 B.C.
     2d Macedonian War: 200-196 B.C.
     War with Antiochus the Great of Syria: 191-188 B.C.
     3rd Macedonian War: 171-167 B.C.
     Achaean War (Corinth destroyed) 146 B.C.

133-31 B.C. The “Roman Revolution” (from Republic to Empire)

133-121 B.C. The Gracchi brothers attempt reforms - murdered

112-31 B.C. Foreign Wars of the Late Republic:
     Jugurthine War (112-105 B.C.)
     Cimbric Wars (113-101 B.C.)
     Wars against Mithridates of Pontus (89-63 B.C.)
     Caesar’s Conquest of Gaul (58-50 B.C.)

88-82 B.C. First Period of Civil Wars (Marius and Sulla)

49-45 B.C. Second Period of Civil Wars (Caesar and Pompey)

44 B.C. Caesar assassinated (March 15, 44 B.C.)

43-31 B.C. Third Period of Civil Wars (Octavian, Brutus, Antony)

31 B.C. Battle of Actium (Octavian defeats Antony) - end of Civil Wars

The Empire:

27 B.C.-A.D. 68 The Julio-Claudian Emperors (Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero)

69 “Year of the Four Emperors” (Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian)

69-96 The Flavian Emperors (Vespasian, Titus, Domitian)

96-180 The “Five Good Emperors” (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius)

180-193 Commodus, Pertinax, Didius Julianus (Empire auctioned off by Praetorian Guard)

193-235 The Severan Dynasty (Septimius Severus, Caracalla, Severus Alexander)

235- c. 270 The "Time of Troubles"
     Germanic tribes breach northern frontiers
     Persians seize East (Zenobia of Palmyra)
     Gaul breaks free into separate empire
     Economy collapses.

270-275 Aurelian - “Restitutor orbis”

284-305 Diocletian and the “Tetrarchy” - Four co-emperors rule Empire

312-337 Constantine the Great reunites the Empire

330 Constantinople founded

376 Visigoths cross the Danube.
     Battle of Adrianople - death of Emperor Valens (378)

378-395 Theodosius the Great - last ruler of united Empire

406 Germanic tribes invade the Western Empire

476 Last Roman emperor in the West deposed (Romulus Augustulus)

527-565 Justinian the Great


1453 The Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople
     May 29, 1453 - Death of Constantine XI

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