ROMAN LAW & SOCIETY



Texts: J.A. Crook, Law and Life of Rome, 90 B.C. - A.D. 212 (Ithaca 1967).
H. F. Jolowicz and B. Nicholas Historical Introduction to the Study of Roman Law, 3rd ed. (Cambridge 1972) (selections).
The Twelve Tables.
The Institutes of Gaius
(selections).
The Institutes of Justinian (selections).

Week 1: Introduction
Outline of the course.
Role of law in society and ancient cultures.
Social basis of law at Rome.
Role of oratory and iuris consultii in Roman life.
Landmarks of Roman law.
Roman legal science and its transmission to the modern world.
The Law of the Twelves Tables - law in archaic Rome.

Readings: The Law of the Twelve Tables

Week 2: Survey of Legal History of Rome / Sources of Law
Sources for the development of law: Regal, Republican law.
Development of Public Law during the Republic.
     Role of magistrates, assemblies and senate.
Lex and Plebiscitum, Interpretatio, Ius honorarium, Edicta magistratuum
Custom
Public Law: Republic, Principate, Dominate.
Private Law: Persons, Family, Property, Obligations, Procedure.
Criminal Law: Regal, Republican, Imperial.
Sources of Law in the Principate: the Classical Age of Roman Law
The Dominate and the Age of Codification.
Survey of Roman procedure and litigation.
Procedure in Early Rome:
     Summons (in ius vocatio).
     Trial (in iure and apud iudicem).
     Execution (in rem and in personam).
Procedure in the Late-Republic:
     Leges actiones.
     
Development of per condictionem, per sponsionem, etc.
     Centumviral and Decemviral courts.
     Development of the Formulary System (Praetorian Edict).
Procedure in the Empire:
     Cognitio extraordinaria.
Appeal and execution.
Provincial developments.


Week 3: The Republican Constitution
Struggle of the Orders.
Assemblies of the People.
Senate.
Magistracies.
Italy and the provinces.
The Revolutionary Period.

Week 4: The Imperial Constitution
Status and powers of the Princeps.
Role of senate, magistracies and assemblies.
The imperial Civil Service.
The issue of succession.
Transition to the Dominate.
Constitution of the Dominate.

Readings: Jolowicz 332-355 & 436-449 & 457-487 [66 pp.]

Week 5: The Law of Persons
Senatorial nobility / Equites.
The middle and lower classes.
Slaves and freedman.
Cives and peregrini.
Classifications of cives.
Honestiores and humiliores.

Readings: Crook 36-67

Week 6: The Law of Family

The Roman Agnatic Family
The Roman Family and its relations:
     patria potestas.
     manus.
     adoptio.
     adrogatio.
Marriage:
     Bethrothal.
     Types of Marriage.
     Divorce.
     Dowry.
Guardianship:
     tutela.
     cura.

Readings:
Crook 98-118

Week 7: The Law of Inheritance and Succession
General Concepts:
     Universal succession.
     Heres and Hereditas.
Succession:
     Testamentary.
     Intestate.
     Remedies of the heir.

Readings:
Crook 118-138

MID-TERM EXAM

Week 8: The Law of Property
Classifications of res (res mancipi and nec mancipi).
Categories of ownership (dominium, peregrinus, bonitary).
Modes of acquisition (mancipatio, in iure cessio, usucapio).
Modes of involuntary transfer (occupatio, accessio, etc.).
Iura in re aliena (praedial servitudes, usufructus and usus).
Development of the possessory interdicts.
Ownership in the provinces.
Ownership by peregrini.

Readings: Crook 139-178

Week 9: The Law of Slavery
Legal nature of slavery
Capacity of slave to act on behalf of master.
     Early Republic.
     Development by praetorian law.
     Development of agency.
Manumission:
     Censu
     Vindicta
     Testamento
     Informal manumissions.
The Augustan Legislation on Manumission:
     lex Fufia Caninia
     lex Iunia
     lex Aelia Sentia
Conditions of slavery:
     The slave "family".
     Chastisement.
     Disabilities.
Readings: Crook 179-192

Week 10: The Law of Obligations
Contracts
     Nexum.
     Formal contracts.
     Informal contracts.
     Security.
Delict (The Roman Law of Tort)
     furtum.
     iniuria.
     Ius honorarium.

Readings: Crook 206-249


Week 11: Criminal Law
Self-help and tumultus.
Criminal law in the early Republic.
Quaestiones perpetuae of the Late Republic.
Criminal law under the Principate/Dominate.
The Issue of Christianity.

Readings: Crook 69-73, 250-285, Jolowicz 321-331

Week 12: Ius gentium and “International Law”
The intersection of war, religion and law.
Development of “diplomacy” in the ancient world.
Ius fetiale.
War, peace, and treaty-making.
Deditio and the “law of war”.


Week 13: Roman Legal Science and Influence
Iuris consulti of the Republic.
The Classical Age of Roman Law.
Legislation on the use of classial law.
Development of the law schools.
Imperial legislation.
Codifications.
The barbarian Codes.
Developments in the Law during the Dominate
     Procedure and jurisdiction.
     Sources of law.
     Substantive changes in law.
     Corpus Iuris Civilis. Transmission to the Middle Ages.
The Reception of Roman law.




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